Focal conservation challenges are identified as part of the situation analysis in the next step, where the interactions in the socio-ecological system are explored. Some planning processes will have an initial set of focal challenges identified—in this case the focal challenges should have been identified through application of a science-based approach at a larger scale. For example, a group may run a planning process to address the challenge of securing freshwater for nature and people in Africa. A broad challenge has been identified as a starting point, but the situation analysis, including conversations with local communities and other key stakeholders, will help identify specific water-related challenges in the region of focus. Ideally, the selection of securing freshwater as a key challenge in Africa would have happened through a global or multi-regional science-based process that identified freshwater as a key challenge in Africa (see Appendix H for the Conservancy’s approach to this type of analysis).