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Results chains should capture both focal and additional outcomes from a proposed strategy.

Most con­ser­va­tion strate­gies will cause many changes to a socio-eco­log­i­cal sys­tem, includ­ing those the strat­e­gy aims to change (focal) and many oth­ers (addi­tion­al). Addi­tion­al out­comes may be oth­er envi­ron­men­tal changes or social or eco­nom­ic changes, and they may be either pos­i­tive or neg­a­tive. Full con­sid­er­a­tion of these addi­tion­al changes should be made, and their poten­tial reflect­ed in the results chain. Addi­tion­al changes rep­re­sent oppor­tu­ni­ties and risks. When they reveal oppor­tu­ni­ties, man­agers can decide to ele­vate spe­cif­ic out­come state­ments asso­ci­at­ed with them, or iden­ti­fy them as plau­si­ble co-ben­e­fits. When risks are revealed, see the next point.