It is often helpful to think about the certainty statements a program would like to make about its impact. If a program is interested in attributing outcomes to program activities (Certain statements), then a rigorous monitoring and evaluation plan should be implemented. This would likely require a greater level of investment than a plan that would attribute program impacts to anecdotal evidence (Cautious statements). Consider the types of statements the primary audience will need to be informed, or convinced, by a monitoring and evaluation plan. For instance, local stakeholders may be satisfied with anecdotes about a program’s impact, while donors may require causal statements about a program’s impact. Please see Appendix G for examples of research designs required to meet the three levels of certainty described below.