The first results chain here (Figure 9) for the Northern Rangelands Trust includes terms like ‘increase economic benefit’ and ‘increase social benefit’ to initially describe human well-being outcomes. To improve upon this, the results chain was expanded to clarify the links between strategies and human well-being components. Figure 10 is a sample of one of the expanded results chains, focusing on the livestock grazing management strategy.
This example emphasizes why specification of outcomes, including unintended (or additional) outcomes is critical. Income improvement is a primary interest of local communities engaged in the grazing programs. Detailing of the results chain showed that improved rangeland productivity is expected to improve livestock quality, but discussion with local stakeholders revealed that rangeland benefits may only accrue to cattle, not sheep and goats because of grazing practices. In many of these communities, men herd and sell cattle and women care for and sell sheep, goats and their products. As income is not openly shared in some households, improving forage for cattle, but not sheep and goats could create greater income inequality among genders–a negative unintended outcome for a vulnerable group. Another strategy not shown here aims to increase livelihood and income options for women, and may offset this potential risk. Because this is a risk to a vulnerable group, it is being monitored closely